IEC International Standards reflect the global consensus and distilled wisdom of many thousand technical experts who are delegated by their countries to participate in the IEC.
They provide instructions, guidelines, rules or definitions that are then used to design, manufacture, install, test & certify, maintain and repair electrical and electronic devices and systems.
IEC International Standards are essential for quality and risk management; they help researchers understand the value of innovation and allow manufacturers to produce products of consistent quality and performance. IEC International Standards are always used by technical experts; they are always voluntary and based on the international consensus of experts from many countries.
IEC 60068-2-1:2007 focuses on cold tests, which are applicable to both heat-dissipating and non-heat-dissipating specimens. The tests Ab and Ad for non-heat-dissipating specimens remain largely unchanged from previous versions. However, the test Ae has been introduced specifically for evaluating equipment that needs to remain operational throughout the test, including the conditioning periods. The purpose of the cold test is to assess the suitability of components, equipment, or other articles for use, transportation, or storage at low temperatures. It’s important to note that the cold tests covered by this standard do not evaluate the ability of specimens to withstand or operate during temperature variations, which would require the use of IEC 60068-2-14.
The cold tests are categorized as follows:
The procedures outlined in this standard are typically intended for specimens that achieve temperature stability during the test. Temperature chambers used for these tests should adhere to the specifications of IEC 60068-3-5 and IEC 60068-3-7. Further guidance on dry heat and cold tests can be found in IEC 60068-3-1, while general guidance is provided in IEC 60068-1.
This sixth edition of the standard addresses cold tests applicable to both heat-dissipating and non-heat-dissipating specimens. Tests Ab and Ad for non-heat-dissipating specimens remain largely unchanged from previous editions, while the new Test Ae is primarily added to cater to equipment that must remain operational throughout the entire test, including the conditioning periods.
IEC 60068-2-2:2007 addresses dry heat tests, which are applicable to both heat-dissipating and non-heat-dissipating specimens. The tests Bb and Bd for non-heat-dissipating specimens remain largely unchanged from previous versions. The purpose of the dry heat test is to assess the suitability of components, equipment, or other articles for use, transportation, or storage under high-temperature conditions. It’s important to note that the dry heat tests covered by this standard do not evaluate the ability of specimens to withstand or operate during temperature variations, which would require the use of IEC 60068-2-14 Test N: Change of temperature.
The dry heat tests are categorized as follows:
The procedures outlined in this standard are typically intended for specimens that achieve temperature stability during the test. Changes from the previous edition include the deletion of Tests Ba and Bc, as they were more severe tests compared to Test Nb in IEC 60068-2-14: Change of temperature. Additionally, the requirement for a 3% temperature difference between the chamber air and wall temperatures has been removed. It is now proposed that the test specimen be powered throughout the test when necessary. Furthermore, the annexes have been removed.
This test method presents a standardized procedure for evaluating the ability of specimens, including components, equipment, and other articles, to withstand specific levels of sinusoidal vibration. When testing an item without its packaging, it is referred to as a test specimen. However, when the item is packaged, it is considered a product, and both the item and its packaging are collectively referred to as a test specimen. The objective of this test is to identify any mechanical weaknesses or degradation in the specified performance of the specimens. This information, along with the relevant specifications, is utilized to determine the acceptability of the specimens. Additionally, this test method can be employed to demonstrate the mechanical robustness of specimens and investigate their dynamic behavior. Components can also be categorized based on selecting from the specified severities outlined in the test.
The significant changes in comparison to the previous edition include:
IEC 60068-2-14:2009 offers a test method to assess the capability of components, equipment, or other articles to endure rapid changes in ambient temperature. The duration of exposure required to achieve this will vary depending on the nature of the specimen. The significant changes from the previous edition include:
IEC 60068-2-27:2008 establishes a standardized procedure to determine the capability of a specimen to withstand specified levels of non-repetitive or repetitive shocks. The primary objective of this test is to identify any mechanical weaknesses, degradation in specified performance, or accumulated damage caused by shocks. In some cases, this test, in conjunction with the relevant specification, can be used to assess the structural integrity of specimens or as a quality control measure.
This test method is primarily designed for unpackaged specimens and items tested in their transport cases, considering the latter as part of the specimen. When an item is tested without packaging, it is referred to as a test specimen. However, if the item is packaged, it is considered a product, and the item and its packaging together are considered a test specimen. When used together with IEC 60068-2-47, this standard can be applied to test packaged products. This inclusion was introduced in the 2005 version of IEC 60068-2-47 for the first time.
The standard defines prescribed pulse shapes for conducting the test. Annex A provides guidance for selecting and applying these pulses, while Annex B discusses the characteristics of different pulse shapes. Whenever possible, the test severity and shock pulse applied to the specimen should replicate the effects of the actual transport or operational environment to which the specimen will be exposed. Alternatively, they should meet design requirements if the purpose of the test is to assess structural integrity (see Clauses A.2 and A.4). During testing, the specimen is always mounted to the fixture or table of the shock testing machine.
The significant changes compared to the previous edition include:
IEC 60068-2-30:2005 provides a means of assessing the suitability of components, equipment, or other articles for use, transportation, and storage under conditions of high humidity combined with cyclic temperature changes that may result in condensation on the specimen’s surface. When the test aims to evaluate the performance of a specimen during transportation or storage with packaging, the packaging is typically applied during the test conditions. However, for small and lightweight specimens, it may be challenging to generate condensation using this procedure. In such cases, alternative procedures, such as those described in IEC 60068-2-38, should be considered.
The significant changes made in this edition compared to the previous one include:
IEC 61000-6-4:2018, also available as IEC 61000-6-4:2018 RLV (Redline version), is a standard that specifies emission requirements for electrical and electronic equipment used in industrial environments. It is not applicable to equipment covered by IEC 61000-6-3. The standard covers both indoor and outdoor locations within the industrial environment. It addresses emission requirements in the frequency range of 9 kHz to 400 GHz, which are selected to ensure sufficient protection of radio reception in the electromagnetic environment. Measurements are only necessary at frequencies where specific requirements are defined.
The standard includes essential requirements to protect radio services, considering relevant disturbance phenomena for equipment operating in the specified environments. Each port of the equipment has specified requirements. This generic EMC emission standard should be used when there is no applicable product or product-family EMC emission standard available.
The third edition of this standard, which is a technical revision, replaces the second edition published in 2006 and Amendment 1:2010. The significant technical changes in this edition include:
IEC 61000-4-3:2020 is an applicable standard that addresses the immunity requirements of electrical and electronic equipment when exposed to radiated electromagnetic energy. It establishes the necessary test levels and procedures for evaluating equipment immunity. The main objective of this document is to provide a common reference for assessing the immunity of electrical and electronic equipment against radiated radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. The standardized test method described in this part of IEC 61000 ensures a consistent approach to evaluating equipment or systems by subjecting them to RF electromagnetic fields emitted from sources that are not in close proximity to the Equipment Under Test (EUT). The specific test environment is outlined in Clause 6.
Note 1: As per IEC Guide 107, this standard serves as a fundamental publication on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and is intended for use by product committees of the IEC. The decision to apply this immunity test standard lies with the relevant product committees, which are responsible for determining the appropriate test levels and performance criteria. TC 77 and its sub-committees are willing to collaborate with product committees to assess the relevance of specific immunity tests for their respective products.
Note 2: Immunity testing against RF sources in close proximity to the EUT is covered in IEC 61000-4-39. Special considerations are given to protection against radio-frequency emissions from digital radiotelephones and other devices that emit RF.
Note 3: This part defines test methods for evaluating the impact of electromagnetic radiation on the equipment being tested. However, the simulation and measurement of electromagnetic radiation may not provide a precise quantitative determination of effects. The primary objective of the test methods described in this basic document is to ensure consistent testing configurations and repeatability of results across different test facilities.
This standard represents an independent test method, and it cannot be substituted by other test methods to claim compliance. The fourth edition of the standard supersedes the third edition published in 2006, along with Amendment 1:2007 and Amendment 2:2010. It constitutes a technical revision and includes the following significant changes compared to the previous edition:
Remote Monitoring: Digitization allows for remote monitoring of solar power systems, including solar panels, inverters, and battery storage. This remote access provides real-time insights into system performance and allows for quick detection and response to issues, reducing downtime and maximizing energy production.
Data Analysis: Digital technologies enable the collection and analysis of vast amounts of data from solar installations. This data can be used to optimize system performance, predict maintenance needs, and make informed decisions about system expansion or upgrades.
Energy Management: Digitization enables the integration of solar power systems with energy management platforms. This integration allows for the efficient distribution of solar energy, energy storage, and grid interaction, reducing electricity costs and increasing self-consumption.
Grid Integration: Digitization facilitates the integration of solar power systems with the electrical grid. Smart inverters and grid management systems can ensure stable grid operation while maximizing the use of solar energy.
Data loggers are essential components in the digitization of solar power systems for several reasons:
As the solar industry continues its rapid expansion, it becomes increasingly crucial to maximize generation output and maintain high uptime for solar power plants. To achieve this objective, the digitization of processes from the ground up is imperative. This digital transformation enables the minimization of downtime, enhances asset reliability, and ensures optimal long-term performance. In this series of posts, we will explore the pivotal role of digitization within the solar energy sector, highlighting the latest advancements and breakthroughs in renewable technologies. Today, our focus lies on the functionalities and practical applications of data loggers in on-site solar power plants.
A data logger is a sophisticated electronic device designed to systematically record and store data over a specific period, commonly referred to as data logging. In the context of the solar industry, data loggers play a crucial role in capturing and collecting field data related to solar parameters from various sources such as inverters, sensors, meters, or external instruments. These data loggers accurately measure and store the collected information locally within their storage systems.
Reputable data logger manufacturers like SuryaLogix typically offer expandable data storage capacities of up to 500GB. The stored data is subjected to filtering based on various parameters before being transmitted to a server through different methods such as JSON, FTP, MQTT, or API (Rest API), where it is stored in the server's database. This enables users to generate diverse reports, perform queries, and conduct analytical assessments on the data.
The user interface or data visualization component serves as the final stage in the data logger's functionality. It allows users to interact with and interpret the captured data through intuitive representations and graphical displays. The accompanying image below provides a visual aid to enhance comprehension of this concept.
Data loggers find extensive utilization in both commercial and industrial solar power plants, as well as residential solar power plants, to capture and record various data points pertaining to solar assets. These data points encompass critical information such as daily generation, monthly generation, and inverter data, among others.
Data loggers can establish connectivity with servers either through wired or wireless means, facilitating the seamless transmission of measurement results. This enables more effective analysis and optimization of output for solar power plants.
A solar data logger fulfils the essential function of energy monitoring, enabling it to gather data from smart power meters (MFM), diverse sensors, and solar inverters. It is equipped to perform remote monitoring and data collection by leveraging SIM/LAN Internet connections. Furthermore, a data logger possesses the capability to concurrently record real-time voltage, current, power, and energy values associated with PV solar panels, inverters, meters, and other interconnected devices.
For reference, snapshots of the SuryaLogix portal are provided below. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the portal's functionalities, you may connect with the SuryaLogix team and request a free demonstration.
Data loggers offer numerous advantages that are highly beneficial in the solar industry. Firstly, they eliminate the need to deploy personnel to remote locations for monitoring solar power plants, saving both time and expenses. Instead, data loggers enable remote data collection and monitoring, ensuring efficient management without the requirement for on-site presence.
Furthermore, data loggers facilitate the acquisition of a significantly higher data density compared to manual recording methods. This higher data density results in the generation of high-quality data, allowing for more accurate analysis and decision-making. By capturing multiple data points, data loggers provide actionable insights that can be utilized to optimize the performance and operation of solar power plants.
In summary, the utilization of data loggers in solar power plants offers cost savings, improved data quality, and the ability to obtain actionable information for enhanced operational efficiency.
Some Important Points about Data Logger:
Stay tuned for our upcoming post, where we will explore the significance of third-party data loggers in solar power plants. To learn more about how solar energy can contribute to your sustainability goals.